Scientists have long known that the popular image of the Neanderthal as a primitive, hairy, heavily browed, club-wielding brute is not supported by the fossil evidence. But to date, no such consensus has existed on the riddle of Neanderthals' disappearance. The Last Neanderthal, written by one of the most respected authorities on the subject and supported by a dazzling wealth of material, paints the first full portrait of the most familiar and haunting of human relatives. Drawing on the latest findings and sophisticated new techniques of analysis, Ian marshals the best available evidence to unravel the mysteries of the Neanderthals—who they were, how they lived, how they succeeded for so long. Drawing on his own research and the work of others, Ian takes on the most fascinating question of all—what happened to them? This revised edition is fully updated to include information on Ian's recent survey of all known Neanderthal fossils and cutting-edge work with Neanderthal DNA.